This list is extracted from a wood-name list of some 26,000 species and 140,000 common names that I have accumulated over the years.
Some notes/caveats about the species listed here and the common names associated with them.
First, I have removed a several species from the genus Abies and many dozens of common names. The common names I removed were all, as far as I could tell, names which are only used in countries other than the USA. The species that were removed were ones which, as far as I could tell with a quick look, do not grow in the USA and given how common spruce is in North America there seems to be little reason to import them so I assume they are not readily available to the American woodworker.
Although Douglas-fir is not actually a fir (or a spruce or a pine or ANYTHING other than just Douglas-fir), the association of the name "fir" with the species that use the common name Douglas-fir (among other) is so ingrained in the USA that they are included here with the true firs
Lastly, I do NOT believe that this list is comprehensive, even given the caveats above, but it will give a strong sense of the number of spruce species that grow in North America and the large number of common names that are associated with them.
Apologies for the inappropriate lack of capitalization on the Genus name throughout and on the proper names such as "california".